|Saint Gregory Palamas
"I have heard it stated by certain people that we also should
pursue secular wisdom, and that if they do not possess this wisdom,
it is impossible for them to avoid ignorance and false opinions,
even if they have achieved the highest level of impassibility; and
that one cannot acquire perfection and sanctity without seeking
knowledge from all quarters, above all from Greek culture, which
also is a gift of God-just as were those insights granted to the
prophets and apostles through revelation. This education confers
on the soul the knowledge of created beings, and enriches the faculty
of knowledge, which is the greatest of all the powers of the soul.
For education not only dispels all other evils from the soul-since
every passion has its root and foundation in ignorance-but it also
leads men to the knowledge of God, for God is knowable only through
the mediation of His creatures.
I was in no way convinced when I heard such views being put forward,
for my small experience of monastic life showed me that just the
opposite was the case; but I was unable to make a defense against
them. "We not only occupy ourselves with the mysteries of nature"
they proudly claimed, "measuring the celestial cycle, and studying
the opposed motions of the stars, their conjunctions, phases and
risings, and reckoning the consequences of these things (in all
of which matters we take great pride); but in addition, since the
inner principles of these phenomena are to be found in the divine
and primordial creative Mind, and the images of these principles
exist in our soul, we are zealous to understand them, and to cast
off every kind of ignorance in their regard by the methods of distinction,
syllogistic reasoning and analysis; thus, both in this life and
after, we wish to be conformed to the likeness of the Creator".
I felt myself incapable of responding to these arguments, and so
maintained silence towards these men; but now I beg you, Father,
to instruct me in what should be said in defense of the truth, so
that following the Apostle's injunction I may "be ready to
give an account of the faith that is in us" (1 Peter 3:15).
By examining the nature of sensible things, these people have arrived
at a certain concept of God, but not at a conception truly worthy
of Him and appropriate to His blessed nature. For their "disordered
heart was darkened" by the machinations of the wicked demons
who were instructing them. For if a worthy conception of God could
be attained through the use of intellection, how could these people
have taken the demons for gods, and how could they have believed
the demons when they taught man polytheism? In this way, wrapped
up in this mindless and foolish wisdom and unenlightened education,
they have calumniated both God and nature. They have deprived God
of His sovereignty (at least as far as they are concerned); they
have ascribed the Divine Name to demons; and they were so far from
finding the knowledge of beings-the object of their desire and zeal-as
to claim that inanimate things have a soul and participate in a
soul superior to our own. They also allege that things without reason
are reasonable, since capable of receiving a human soul; that demons
are superior to us and are even our creators (such is their impiety),
they have classed among things uncreated and unoriginate and coeternal
with God, not only matter, and what they call the World Soul, but
also those intelligible beings not clothed in the opacity of the
body, and even our souls themselves.
Are we then to say that those who hold such a philosophy possess
the wisdom of God, or even a human wisdom in general? I hope that
none of us would be so mad as to claim this, for, as the Lord declared,
"A good tree does not produce bad fruit" (Matthew 7:18).
In my estimation, this "wisdom" is not even worthy of
the appellation "human", since it is so inconsistent as
to affirm the same things to be at once animate and inanimate, endowed
with and deprived of reason, and it holds that things by nature
without sensibility, and having no organs capable of sensation,
could contain our souls! It is true that Paul sometimes speaks of
this as "human wisdom", as when he says, "My proclamation
does not rest on the persuasive words of human wisdom" (1 Corinthians
2:13). But at the same time, he thinks it right to call those who
have acquired it "wise according to the flesh" (1 Corinthians
1:26), or "wise men become feeble minded" (Romans 1:22),
"the disputants of this age" (1 Corinthians 1:20), and
their wisdom is qualified by him in similar terms: it is "wisdom
become folly" (1 Corinthians 1:20), the "wisdom which
has been done away" (1 Corinthians 1:28), "vain trumpery"
(Colossians 2:8), the "wisdom of this age", and belongs
to the "princes" of this age-who are "coming to an
end" (1 Corinthians 2:6).
For myself, I listen to the father who says, "Woe to body
when it does not consume the nourishment that is from without, and
woe to the soul when it does not receive the grace that is from
above!" He speaks justly-for the body will perish once it has
passed into the world of inanimate things, and the soul will become
enmeshed in the demonic life and the thoughts of demons if it turns
away from that which is proper to it.
But if one says that philosophy, insofar as it is natural, is a
gift of God, then one says true, without contradiction, and without
incurring the accusation that falls on those who abuse philosophy
and pervert it to an unnatural end. Indeed they make their condemnation
heavier by using God's gift in a way unpleasing to Him.
Moreover, the mind of demons, created by God, possesses by nature
it faculty of reason. But we do not hold that its activity comes
from God, even though its possibility of acting comes from Him;
one could with propriety call such reason an unreason. The intellect
of pagan philosophers is likewise a divine gift insofar as it naturally
possesses a wisdom endowed with reason. But it has been perverted
by the wiles of the devil, who has transformed it into a foolish
wisdom, wicked and senseless, since it puts forward such doctrines.
But if someone tells us that demons themselves have a desire and
knowledge not absolutely bad, since they desire to exist, live and
think, here is the proper reply which I should give: it is not right
to take issue with us because we say that Greek wisdom is "demonic"
(James 3:15), on the grounds that it arouses quarrels and contains
almost every kind of false teaching, and is alienated from its proper
end, that is, the knowledge of God; but at the same time recognise
that it may have some participation in the good in a remote and
inchoate manner. It should be remembered that no evil thing is evil
insofar as it exists, but insofar as it is turned aside from the
activity appropriate of it, and thus from the end assigned to this
What then should be the work and goal of those who seek the wisdom
of God in creatures? Is it not the acquisition of the truth, and
the glorification of the Creator? This is clear to all. But the
knowledge of the pagan philosophers has fallen away from both these
Is there then anything of use in this philosophy? Certainly; for
just as there is much therapeutic value even in substances obtained
from the flesh of serpents, and the doctors consider there is no
better and more useful medicine than that derived from this source,
so there is something of benefit to be had even from the profane
philosophers- but somewhat as in a mixture of honey and hemlock.
So it is most needful that those who wish to separate out the honey
from the mixture should beware that they do not take the deadly
residue by mistake. And if you were to examine the problem, you
would see that all or most of the harmful heresies derive their
origin from this source.
It is thus with the "iconognosts", who pretend that man
receives the image of God by knowledge, and that this knowledge
conforms the soul to God. For, as was said to Cain, "If you
make your offering correctly, without dividing correctly..."
(Genesis 4:7). But to divide well is the property of very few men.
Those alone "divide well", the senses of whole souls are
trained to distinguish good and evil.
What need is there to run these dangers without necessity, when
it is possible to contemplate the wisdom of God in His creatures
not only without peril but with profit? A life which hope in God
has liberated from every care naturally impels the soul towards
the contemplation of God's creatures. Then it is struck with admiration,
deepens its understanding, persists in the glorification of the
Creator, and through this sense of wonder is led forward to what
is greater. According to St. Isaac, "It comes upon treasures
which cannot be expressed in words"; and using prayer as a
key, it penetrates thereby into the mysteries which "eye has
not seen, ear has not heard and which have not entered into the
heart of man" (1 Corinthians 2:9), mysteries manifested by
the Spirit alone to those who are worthy, as St. Paul teaches.
Do you see the swiftest way, full of profit and without danger,
that leads to those supernatural and heavenly treasures?
In the case of the secular wisdom, you must first kill the serpent,
in other words, overcome the pride that arises from this philosophy.
How difficult that is! "The arrogance of philosophy has nothing
in common with humility", as the saying goes. Having overcome
it, then, you must separate and cast away the head and tail, for
these things are evil in the highest degree. By the head, I mean
manifestly wrong opinions concerning things intelligible, divine
and primordial; and by the tail, the fabulous stories concerning
created things. As to what lies in between the head and tail, that
is, discourses on nature, you must separate out useless ideas by
means of the faculties of examination and inspection possessed by
the soul, just as pharmacists purify the flesh of serpents with
fire and water. Even if you do all this, and make good use of what
has been properly set aside, how much trouble and circumspection
will be required for the task!
Nonetheless, if you put to good use that part of the profane wisdom
which has been well excised, no harm can result, for it will naturally
have become an instrument for good. But even so, it cannot in the
strict sense be called a gift of God and a spiritual thing, for
it pertains to the order of nature and is not sent from on high.
This is why Paul, who is so wise in divine matters, calls it "carnal"
(2 Corinthians 1:12); for, says he, "Consider that among us
who have been chosen, there are not many wise according to the flesh"
(1 Corinthians 1:26). For who could make better use of this wisdom
than those whom Paul calls "wise from outside" (1 Timothy
3:7)? But having this wisdom in mind, he calls them "wise according
to the flesh", and rightly too.
Just as in legal marriage, the pleasure derived from procreation
cannot exactly be called a gift of God, because it is carnal and
constitutes a gift of nature and not of grace (even though that
nature has been created by God); even so the knowledge that comes
from profane education, even if well used, is a gift of nature,
and not of grace-a gift which God accords to all without exception
through nature, and which one can develop by exercise. This last
point-that no one acquires it without effort and exercise-is an
evident proof that it is a question of a natural, not a spiritual,
It is our sacred wisdom that should legitimately be called a gift
of God and not a natural gift, since even simple fishermen who receive
it from on high become, as Gregory the Theologian says, sons of
Thunder, whose word has encompassed the very bounds of the universe.
By this grace, even publicans are made merchants of souls; and even
the burning zeal of persecutors is transformed, making them Pauls
instead of Sauls, turning away the earth to attain "the third
heaven" and "hear ineffable things". By this true
wisdom we too can become conformed to the image of God and continue
to be such after death.
As to natural wisdom, it is said that even Adam possessed it in
abundance, more so than all his descendants, although he was the
first who failed to safeguard conformity to the image. Profane philosophy
existed as an aid to this natural wisdom before the advent of Him
who came to recall the soul to its ancient beauty; why then were
we not renewed by this philosophy before Christ's coming? Why did
we need, not someone to teach us philosophy-an art which passes
away with this age, so that it is said to be "of this age"
(1 Corinthians 2:6)-but One "who takes away the sin of the
world", and who grants us a true and eternal wisdom-even though
this appears as "foolishness" (1 Corinthians 1:18) to
the ephemeral and corrupt wise men of this world, whereas in reality
its absence makes truly foolish those not spiritually attached to
it? Do you not clearly see that it is not the study of profane sciences
which brings salvation, which purifies the cognitive faculty of
the soul, and conforms it to the divine Archetype?
This then, is my conclusion, if man who seeks to be purified by
fulfilling the prescriptions of the Law gains no benefit from Christ-even
though the Law has been manifestly promulgated by God-then neither
will the acquisition of the profane sciences avail. For how much
more will Christ be of no benefit to one who turns to the discredited
alien philosophy to gain purification for his soul? It is Paul,
the mouthpiece of Christ, who tells us this and gives us his testimony."